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Trophectoderm cells are the extraembryonic tissue. The trophectoderm cells do not help in the fetus's development but become a part of the structure like membranes and placenta. The biopsy of trophectoderm is commonly performed over embryo biopsy (day-3 embryos (8-cell stage)) for pre-implantation genetic screening.
The blastocyst is made up of 2 cell types, the inner cell mass, and the trophectoderm. The inner cell mass develops into the fetus and trophectoderm into the placenta.
The trophectoderm's biopsy is done at the 16-32 cell blastocysts when the trophectoderm is going to develop into zona pellucida. It is an alternative method performed in place of embryo biopsy, as in embryo biopsy; there is a relatively high chance of misdiagnosis due to "aneuploidy." In this test, trophectoderm cells are removed, and this test has become the most preferred method of obtaining cells used for PGD as in this technique, multiple cells are analyzed, and the result offered is more accurate.
In this treatment, a laser is used to reach the zona pellucida layer of the embryo on the day 3rd of development. This helps the embryo to hatch on the 5th day of development, which is slightly earlier than the natural process. This hatching causes the trophectoderm to herniated out of the zona pellucida layer. Then using micro tools, the embryo is held, and safely around 5-10 cells from the herniating portion are removed from the trophectoderm layer using the laser.
Note- A blastocyst is made up of more than 100 cells, and removing some cells does not affect the development of the embryo. The cells are removed from the trophectoderm layer. This does not cause any disturbance in the inner cellular matrix.
The biopsy sample is immediately vitrified, and then the test is performed in the laboratory. Then after the genetic testing, the healthy embryo is cryopreserved. The normal embryo is thawed and then transferred into a female uterus.
The technique also helps in prenatal diagnosis of transmitting a genetic defect to avoid termination of pregnancy in couples at high risk. For more information about the Trophectoderm biopsy test in Hyderabad, pay a visit today at Dr. Chandana Lakkireddi Nova IVF Fertility Centre, Hyderabad.
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